By Alton Meister
Evolution of Glutathione Metabolism (R. Fahey & A. Sundquist).
Covalent Inhibitors of the Gelation of Sickle cellphone Hemoglobin and Their results on functionality (J. Manning).
Structural foundation for Catalysis via Tryptophan Synthase (E. Miles).
constitution and Mechanism of F0F1-Type ATP Synthases and ATPases (H. Penefsky & R. Cross).
Novel features of the Biochemistry of the Molybdenum Cofactor (K. Rajagopalan).
Ovothiols: organic and Chemical views (B. Shapiro & P. Hopkins).
N?5-(1-Carboxyethyl)Ornithine and comparable [N-Carboxyalkyl]-Amino Acids: constitution, Biosynthesis, and serve as (J. Thompson & S. Miller).
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Additional info for Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Volume 64
Hell, R. ,Physiol. , 72, 70-76 (1988). 78. Doolittle, R. , Feng, D. , Johnson, M. ; and McClure, M. , Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. , 51, 447-455 (1986). 79. Kosower, N. S. and Kosower, E. , Znr. Rev. , 54, 109-160 (1978). 80. Fahey, R. , Plenum Press, New York, 1977, pp. 1-30. 81. , Scand. J. Clin. Lab. , 20, Suppl. 96, 1-67 (1%7). 82. Ondarza, R. , Rendon, J. , J. Mol. , 19, 371-375 (1983). 83. , Aronson, A. , and Holt, S . , J. , 113, 1134-1143 (1973). 84. Thomas, E. , J. , 157, 240-246 (1984).
Second, the ability to produce GSH could have evolved independently in the cyanobacteria and the purple bacteria. A detailed examination of the enzymes of glutathione synthesis in the purple bacteria and cyanobacteria will have to be undertaken to distinguish between these two possibilities. EVOLUTION OF GLUTATHJONE METABOLISM 37 Another possibility is that glutathione metabolism evolved in an anaerobic phototroph prior to the divergence of the cyanobacteria from the purple bacteria and that its appearance was dependent on some factor other than autoxidation.
This function would have been possible only if cysteine could be regenerated when needed by the cell. Transpeptidases and dipeptidases of the type needed to degrade glutathione do appear to be widely distributed in bacteria, but such activities have not been extensively studied from this perspective. That GSH functions, in part, as a stable storage or transport form of GSH has long been considered for animals (302) and plants (68). C. THE FIRST GLUTATHIONE-DEPENDENT ENZYMES Once the synthesis of GSH had been achieved, other enzyme activities utilizing glutathione could have evolved.
Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Volume 64 by Alton Meister