By Chin-hue Lee, Haizhou Li, Lin-shan Lee, Ren-hua Wang, Qiang Huo
After a long time of analysis job, chinese language spoken language processing (CSLP) has complicated significantly either in functional know-how and theoretical discovery. during this publication, the editors offer either an advent to the sector in addition to distinctive learn issues of their recommendations in a number of components of CSLP. The contributions symbolize pioneering efforts starting from CSLP rules to applied sciences and purposes, with every one bankruptcy encapsulating a unmarried challenge and its recommendations.
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On the contrary, in Mandarin / p / and / p h / are two separate phonemes and the voiced plosive [b] is not a phoneme, so in Hanyu Pinyin the symbol "b" is used for the phoneme / p / and "p" is for / p h / . Therefore, some Chinese speakers may mistakenly think that the English word "bay" sounds identical to the sound of the Chinese character it (bei, "north").
The most likely structures to play this role are the outer hair cells, which are part of the organ of Corti. The magnitude of the BM response does not increase directly in proportion with the input magnitude: although at very low and at high levels the response grows roughly linearly with increasing level, in the mid-range it increases more gradually. This pattern shows a compressive non-linearity, whereby a large range of input sound levels is compressed into a smaller range of BM responses. The ear as the "front-end" of hearing and speech perception system described above provides the input to the "back-end" or higher levels of the human auditory system.
2. Short-Time Average Zero-Crossing Rate Speech analysis that attempts to estimate spectral features usually requires a Fourier transform. However, a simple measure called the zero-crossing rate (ZCR) provides basic spectral information in some applications at low cost. , changes algebraic sign). , sinusoids), the ZCR can accurately measure the frequency where power is concentrated. The ZCR is useful for estimating whether speech is voiced. Voiced speech has mostly low-frequency power, owing to a glottal excitation spectrum that falls off at about -12 dB per octave.
Advances in Chinese Spoken Language Processing by Chin-hue Lee, Haizhou Li, Lin-shan Lee, Ren-hua Wang, Qiang Huo