By Alan Timberlake
This textbook describes and systematizes all facets of the grammar of Russian--including styles of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, note order, and intonation. it really is specially fascinated about the which means of mixtures of phrases (constructions) and the middle notion is that of the predicate heritage (a checklist of the states of entities via time and throughout possibilities). utilizing predicate histories, the publication offers an built-in account of the semantics of verbs, nouns, case, and element. it's going to entice scholars, students and language pros attracted to Russian.
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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars)
The Library of Congress handles ≤s≥, but creates off-putting sequences such as ≤Ialta≥. The US Board on Geographic Names of The American Geographic Society of the Smithsonian Institute, like the British System, uses ≤y≥ in rendering ≤z≥ and ≤/≥. It even uses ≤ye≥ to render Cyrillic ≤t≥ in the position not after consonants -in absolute initial position, after vowels, and after ≤m≥ and ≤(≥: ≤Dostoyevsky≥, ≤Yeltsin≥. This is roughly the strategy used in journalism to render Russian words or names, though popular practice is less consistent than the transliteration algorithms.
Thus operations that deal with the prosody of phrases are focused on stressed syllables. 1 Stressed vowels A word is organized in its phonetics around the one vowel that is stressed. That stressed vowel is normally longer than other vowels. Vowels far away from 29 30 A Reference Grammar of Russian the stressed vowel are very short. Vowels of the syllable immediately before the stressed syllable are intermediate in duration; they are shorter than stressed vowels, longer than other unstressed vowels.
Also, [ì] has become usual since the beginning of the twentieth century in Context 6 (ins pl lth†dyzvb: previously [n˛ ´m˛ì], now [n˛ ìm˛ì]). Beyond this syntagmatic phonetic condition, the choice between [´] and [ì] depends on a paradigmatic condition -- on the vowel phones that occur in the given morpheme in other words. At one extreme, [´] is used consistently in Contexts 1--5, for example, nom sg lth†dyz ‘village’ [n˛ ´]. The vowel of these morphemes would be [ƒ] under stress (nom sg ujkjdƒ ‘head’, ptvkz´ ‘land’) and [´] after hard 30 See Koˇsuti´c 1919 (on Old Muscovite), Avanesov 1972:69--71, Kuz mina 1966, Panov 1968:42--56.
A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars) by Alan Timberlake