By Eldon G. Lytle
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Extra info for A Grammar of Subordinate Structures in English
Thus, if a sentence with other can be constructed, the quantifier in the head noun must be some: if such a sentence is ungrammatical, the quantifier in the head noun must be all. This corresponds to the mutually exclusive distribution of some-others and all - none. " In each case just those professors who are idealistic enjoy poetry. The same allegations are made about the same subset of professors. " We star the sentence because it deviates semantically from the interpretation we require. " In order to obtain the semantic interpretation we require, the underlying element some must either be encliticized (de-stressed), or deleted if the antecedent noun is to occur with a restrictive modifier in the surface structure.
It should be evident that semantic arguments tend to be inconclusive. In order to demonstrate the type of pitfalls one encounters, let us reconsider the same data employed to motivate the conjoined-origin postulate for nonrestrictives, but in conjunction withjcertain other observations. Briefly, the semantic argument is as follows: The sentence professors, who enjoy poetry, are idealistic is semantically identical to professors enjoy poetry and professors are idealistic. Each sentence makes the same allegations about the same referents.
7) Pearls are as valuable as diamonds are. (7a) Are pearls as valuable as diamonds are ? (8) Jim must learn by experience, like everyone else (does). (8a) Must Jim learn by experience, like everyone else (does)? (9) The Smiths have a dog like ours (is). (9a) Do the Smiths have a dog like ours (is)? (10) Mary washed the dishes and Jan dried them. (10a) Did Mary wash the dishes and Jan dry them? (11) We have a Plymouth, but Mike has a Ford. (11a) Do we have a Plymouth, but Mike a Ford? Notice the italicized clauses.
A Grammar of Subordinate Structures in English by Eldon G. Lytle